The Wage Indicator Foundation, through its global dataset, has provided the information that could not be imagined ten years ago. Agreements reached in different parts of the world can be scanned at global level. In addition to the use of graphical tools, it is possible to research different topics such as maternity rights, social security, occupational safety and health, workers` well-being and much more to assess the progress made, but also the challenges that can then be met by learning from countries that are relatively better off in their respective thematic practices. The tool is therefore good for trade unions, employers` organisations, academic institutions and even students. It is a wonderful tool that has been provided through the wage indicator, unions and employers around the world. Nevertheless, the components and mechanism of the geographic labour market correspond to those of the non-spatial model. The labour supply offers its availability to work and qualifications, while seeking high wages, job security and career prospects. The demand for labor, that is, businessmen, entrepreneurs, public institutions and representatives of all kinds of associations, seek this availability and specific qualifications and strive, for reasons of cost, to pay low wages in exchange, while promising job security and career prospects only to certain workers. This research process is accompanied on both sides by organisations which, through collective agreements, have created the framework conditions that considerably shorten the individual bargaining process. For most workers, individual bargaining margin is limited by collective agreements achieved through collective bargaining, minimum wage and labour legislation. The most direct strategies are legal provisions requiring the payment of equal pay for equal work and equal pay for work of equal value.
Equal pay for equal work provisions have been most effective where they called for the elimination of wage differences between men and women in collective agreements. For example, the rapid reduction of the gender pay gap in Australia and the United Kingdom in the 1970s shows the effectiveness of measures to eliminate direct discrimination in collective agreements (Grégory et al. 1989, Zabalza and Tzannatos in 1985). The improvements made by Sweden in the same decade also reflect the advantage of broad coverage by collective agreements and, in this case, will precede the period before the introduction of equal pay legislation. While equal pay requirements can first of all be very effective when they harmonise minimum rates between men and women through a wide range of collective agreements, the degree of segregation in the labour market means that most provisions on equal pay for equal work apply to only a small proportion of women, since few men and women actually do the same work. . . .